Charles Tooth was born 14 February 1831 in Cranbrooke, Kent. He was the son of Robert Tooth (1799–1867) and Mary Ann Reader (c. 1801 – 1845). He married Eliza Tabberer (died 1892) in 1855.
Tooth became managing partner of the Tooth Brothers' brewery (later Crescent Brewery) in Burton upon Trent in 1855. This was founded mainly to export beer to the business run by his brothers Robert (1821–1893), Edwin and Frederick in Sydney, Australia where demand for beer had increased as a result of the Australian gold rushes. It closed after financial problems early in the next decade.
Tooth was admitted as a fellow-
He served as curate in Uxbridge (then in Middlesex) 1863–65, was perpetual curate of St George's Falfield, Gloucestershire 1865–71, vicar of Grandborough, Warwickshire 1871–72 and rector of St. Mark’s Snow Hill in Shelton, Staffordshire 1872–75.
Tooth moved to Tuscany for health reasons in 1876, where he was the Anglican chaplain in Siena. He founded St Mark's English Church as an independent house church in Florence in 1877 for which he purchased new premises which opened in 1881, although chaplain and church were not licensed for service by the bishop until 1884. He remained chaplain of St Mark's until 1894.
Tooth married Louisa Janette Anne Edwards (died 1899) in 1894. He died the same year, on 2 August 1894 in Gibraltar.
His widow commissioned the building of St Mark's Church, Brithdir in his memory. It was designed by Henry Wilson in the style of the Arts and Crafts movement. Building started in 1895 and the church was consecrated in 1898. It is designated a Grade I listed building by Cadw who describe it as "an exceptionally important and advanced work for its date".